Activating background knowledge (the meaning that you get from text is weaved with the meaning you bring to it) (Tompkins, 2015).
Connecting (3 connections that readers make: text to self, text to text, and text to world).
Determining importance (readers cannot remember everything so they determine what is the most important to remember)
Drawing inferences (involves activating background knowledge, looking for clues, asking questions, and reaching conclusions).
Evaluating (used throughout the reading process. Children monitor their interest in the text and judge their success)
Monitoring (this is the inner conversation that happens in their head - when understanding breaks down, they need to take action).
Predicting (thoughtful guesses about what will happen or what they will learn)
Questioning (ask “what”, “who”, “how”, and “why” questions throughout reading. Teach children to generate these questions)
Repairing (understanding that there is a problem with comprehension and solve the problem)
go back and reread
skip ahead and read
try visualizing or questioning
check the meaning of an unfamiliar word, use picture clues, learn more about the topic to build background knowledge, or ask for help
Setting a Purpose (entertain, learn about a topic, directions to complete a task, or find answers to a question. This helps the reader to focus their attention)
Summarizing (pick out the most important ideas. paraphrase into their own words).
Visualizing (create a mental image while reading).
Choosing Books. Help children to choose good fit books. Have them look at the cover for a book that interests them. Then open the book and read a page. If a child does not know/understand more than five words on the page then the book is too difficult. There should be a mix of Fiction and Nonfiction texts.
Comprehension is the reason that readers read. We want children to become thoughtful, insightful readers (Harvey and Goudvis, 2007). We want them to develop a love for reading that creates a lifelong reader.
Prerequisites for Comprehension
For children to understand what they are reading, they need to have background knowledge on what they are reading, they must be able to understand most of the words they are reading, and they need to be able to read it fluently.
Knowledge about the world and an understanding of stories; Lots of talking and describing the things children see and experience
It is difficult to understand text that consists of too many unfamiliar words. Discuss the meaning of new words with children.
Children who recognize many words can read quickly and efficiently. The children are able to use their energy to understand what they are reading.
Before reading a book discuss the topic and point out any vocabulary words that may be difficult. For example: Using a boat fact book - talk about different types of boats and learn what your child knows. Then look through for difficult words like propeller and stern and talk about what that means before reading.
More Reading Time and Less TV Time
Children will develop a richer vocabulary by having books read to them than by watching TV. Listening vocabulary is larger than reading vocabulary.
Read Aloud and Think Aloud
Explain the visual image that you “see” and questions that you think of while reading. Share your thinking while you read.
Switch Roles and Let Your Child Be The Teacher
Take turns summarizing, asking questions, and making predictions. Allow your child to say “Mom, tell me what you think will happen next”.
Interesting and Relevant
Pay attention to what your child likes and help them to find books that they enjoy.